Meaning: More than one aircraft which, by prior arrangement between the pilots, operate as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting. Separation between aircraft within the formation is the responsibility of the flight leader and the pilots of the other aircraft in the flight. This includes transition periods when aircraft within the formation are maneuvering to attain separation from each other to effect individual control and during join-up and breakaway.
  1. A standard formation is one in which a proximity of no more than 1 mile laterally or longitudinally and within 100 feet vertically from the flight leader is maintained by each wingman.
  2. Nonstandard formations are those operating under any of the following conditions:
    1. When the flight leader has requested and ATC has approved other than standard formation dimensions.
    2. When operating within an authorized altitude reservation (ALTRV) or under the provisions of a letter of agreement.
    3. When the operations are conducted in airspace specifically designed for a special activity.
Refer to:
  • 14 CFR Part 91
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